Modern sports have their roots in the late seventeenth century, when the concept of a sports record first appeared. The Puritans, who opposed traditional pastimes, forced these games underground, forcing them to evolve into more organized games. The Marylebone Cricket Club, founded in 1787, led the way in organizing games and developing rational competition.
Modern sports have become interdependent and transnational, and are part of globalization. The 20th century saw the emergence of a global economy, transnational cosmopolitan cultures, and a wide variety of international social movements. In addition, modern technology allowed people and money to travel more quickly. This facilitated the development of regular international competitions and special competitions such as the Olympic Games.
Sports have also become part of national identity politics. In the 19th century, sports were used to create national identity, both by established groups and outsiders. They are an example of how hegemonic social relations are formed and maintained, and how these dynamics impact national identity politics. The importance of sports in national identity development cannot be overstated.
During the 20th century, sports had become a global phenomenon, with athletes from poorer nations winning the right to compete in certain sports. This led to the emergence of Olympic Solidarity, an organization that provides technical assistance to developing nations. Without adequate training facilities, poorer nations lose their most talented athletes to more developed and powerful nations. Such countries have better competition, greater financial rewards, and more resources to devote to sports.